Advanced Avionics Handbook

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Ingeniería Aeronáutica

CONTENIDO

Preface....................................................................iii
Acknowledgments...................................................v
Table of Contents..................................................vii
Chapter 1
Introduction to Advanced Avionics....................1-1
Introduction.....................................................................1-1
How To Operate Advanced Avionics Systems...............1-2
Which Advanced Avionics Systems To Use and When.1-2
How Advanced Avionics Systems Affect the Pilot........1-3
Chapter Summary...........................................................1-3
Chapter 2
Electronic Flight Instruments..............................2-1
Introduction.....................................................................2-1
Primary Flight Display (PFD).........................................2-2
Primary Flight Instruments..........................................2-2
Cross-Checking the Primary Flight Instruments.....2-2
Common Errors: Altitude Excursions and
Fixation....................................................................2-2
Enhancements to the Primary Flight Instruments....2-3
Primary Flight Instrument Systems.............................2-3
Navigation Instruments...............................................2-3
Other Flight Status Information..................................2-4
Making Entries on the PFD.........................................2-4
Failures and the Primary Flight Display.....................2-4
Instrument System Failure.......................................2-4
PFD Failure..............................................................2-6
Awareness: Using Standby Instruments..................2-6
Essential Skills............................................................2-6
Chapter Summary...........................................................2-6
Chapter 3
Navigation.............................................................3-1
Area Navigation (RNAV) Basics....................................3-2
RNAV Concept...........................................................3-2
FMS/RNAV Computer...............................................3-2

FMS/RNAV/Autopilot Interface: Display and
Controls.......................................................................3-3
Accessing Information in the FMS..........................3-3
Making Entries in the FMS......................................3-4
Integrated Avionics Systems...................................3-4
Learning: Simulators for Learning and Practice......3-5
Flight Planning................................................................3-5
Preflight Preparation....................................................3-5
FMS/RNAV Approval For IFR Operations................3-6
Navigation Database Currency.......................................3-6
Alternative Means of Navigation................................3-6
NOTAMs Relevant To GPS........................................3-6
GPS Signal Availability..............................................3-6
Alternate Airports........................................................3-7
Aircraft Equipment Suffixes........................................3-7
Suitability of an RNAV Unit for VFR Flight..............3-7
Programming the Flight Route....................................3-7
The Flight Planning Page............................................3-8
En Route Waypoints and Procedural Waypoints.....3-8
Entering En Route Waypoints.................................3-8
Entering Airways.....................................................3-8
Entering Procedures.................................................3-9
Risk: Taking Off Without Entering a Flight Plan....3-9
Reviewing the Flight Route.....................................3-9
Catching Errors: Using the FMs Flight Planning
Function To Cross-Check Calculations.......................3-9
Check the Waypoints.............................................3-10
Check the Distances...............................................3-10
Check the Desired Tracks......................................3-11
Check for Route Discontinuities............................3-11
Maintaining Proficiency: Aeronautical
Knowledge.............................................................3-11
Coupling the FMs to the Navigation Indicator(s).....3-11
Common Error: Displaying the Wrong
Navigation Source.................................................3-12
Awareness: Mode Awareness................................3-13
Essential Skills..........................................................3-13
En Route Navigation.....................................................3-13

The Active Waypoint................................................3-14
Desired Track.........................................................3-14
Track......................................................................3-14
Groundspeed and ETA..........................................3-14
Fuel Used and Time Remaining............................3-14
Arriving at the Active Waypoint...............................3-14
Waypoint Alerting.................................................3-15
Turn Anticipation...................................................3-15
Waypoint Sequencing............................................3-15
Awareness: Making Waypoint Callouts................3-15
Setting the Course to New Active Waypoint.........3-16
En Route Sensitivity..................................................3-16
GPS Signal Status..................................................3-16
Accessing Navigational Information En Route.....3-16
Essential Skills..........................................................3-16
En Route Modifications................................................3-17
Adding and Deleting Waypoints From the
Programmed Route....................................................3-17
Direct To...................................................................3-17
Risk: What Lies Ahead on a Direct-To Route?.....3-18
Cancel Direct To....................................................3-18
Selecting a Different Instrument Procedure or
Transition..................................................................3-18
Proceeding Directly to the Nearest Airport...............3-18
Essential Skills..........................................................3-18
Descent..........................................................................3-19
Elements of Descent Planning Calculations..............3-19
Manual Descent Calculations................................3-20
Coordinating Calculations with Aeronautical
Charts.....................................................................3-21
Alternate Navigation Planning..............................3-21
Calculating Descents with the FMS......................3-21
Managing Speed....................................................3-22
Descent Flying Concepts.......................................3-22
Flying the Descent.................................................3-23
Determining Arrival at the Top-of-Descent
Point.......................................................................3-23
Early Descents.......................................................3-23
Late Descents.........................................................3-24
Common Error: Not Considering Winds During
Descent Planning...................................................3-25
Essential Skills..........................................................3-25
Intercept And Track Course..........................................3-25
Intercepting and Tracking a Different Course to
the Active Waypoint..................................................3-25
The Nonsequencing Mode........................................3-25
Common Error: Forgetting To Re-Engage
Sequencing Mode After Course Intercept.............3-26
Awareness: Remembering To Make Needed
Mode Changes.......................................................3-26
Intercepting and Tracking a Course to a Different
Waypoint...................................................................3-26
Common Error: Setting the Wrong Inbound
Course During a Course Intercept.........................3-27
Common Error: Setting the Wrong Active
Waypoint During a Course Intercept.....................3-27
Catching Errors: A Helpful Callout Procedure
for Course Intercepts..............................................3-27
Essential Skills..........................................................3-28
Holding.........................................................................3-28
Preprogrammed Holding Patterns..........................3-28
Common Error: Mismanaging the Sequencing/
Nonsequencing Modes During a Hold..................3-30
Essential Skills..........................................................3-30
ARCS............................................................................3-30
Essential Skills..........................................................3-30
GPS And RNAV (GPS) Approaches............................3-30
LNAV...........................................................................3-35
LNAV/VNAV...............................................................3-35
LPV...............................................................................3-35
GPS or RNAV (GPS) Approach Waypoints.............3-35
Flying a GPS or RNAV (GPS) Approach.................3-35
Terminal Mode......................................................3-36
Approach Mode.....................................................3-36
Approach Not Active.............................................3-36
Vectored Approaches................................................3-36
Awareness: Briefing the Approach........................3-37
Common Error: Forgetting To Verify the
Approach Mode.....................................................3-37
Common Error: Using the Wrong Approach
Minimums..............................................................3-37
Common Error: Forgetting To Reengage
Sequencing Mode Prior to Final Approach
Waypoint................................................................3-37
Essential Skills..........................................................3-38
Course Reversals...........................................................3-38
Preprogrammed Course Reversals............................3-38
Common Error: Mismanaging the Sequencing/
Nonsequencing Modes During a Course
Reversal.................................................................3-38
Essential Skills..........................................................3-38
Missed Approaches.......................................................3-40
Recognizing the Missed Approach Point..................3-41
Complying With ATC-Issued Missed Approach
Instructions................................................................3-41
Setting Up Next Procedure in Hold.......................3-41

Common Error: Noncompliance With Initial
Missed Approach Instructions...............................3-42
Essential Skills..........................................................3-42
Ground-based Radio Navigation...................................3-42
Configuring FMs To Receive Ground-Based............3-42
Radio Navigation Signals..........................................3-42
Tuning and Identifying Radio Navigation
Facilities....................................................................3-42
Displaying Radio Navigation Signals on the
Navigation Indicator..................................................3-42
Awareness: Using All Available Navigation
Resources..................................................................3-42
Flying a Precision Approach Using Ground-based
Navigation Facilities.................................................3-42
Flying a Nonprecision Approach Using
Ground-Based Navigation Facilities.........................3-42
Maintaining Proficiency: Practicing All
Navigation Skills.......................................................3-43
Essential Skills..........................................................3-43
Chapter Summary.........................................................3-44
Chapter 4
Automated Flight Control....................................4-1
Introduction.....................................................................4-1
Autopilot Concepts.........................................................4-2
How To Use an Autopilot Function............................4-2
Specification of Track and Altitude.........................4-2
Engagement of Autopilot Function.........................4-3
Verification of Autopilot Function Engagement.....4-3
How Autopilot Functions Work..................................4-4
Determination of Control Movements Required
To Achieve Goals....................................................4-4
Carrying Out Control Movements...........................4-4
Flight Director.................................................................4-4
Flight Director Functions............................................4-4
Using the Flight Director (FD)....................................4-5
Flight Director Without Autopilot...........................4-5
Flight Director With Autopilot................................4-5
Common Error: Blindly Following Flight
Director Cues...........................................................4-5
Common Error: Confusion About Autopilot
Engagement.............................................................4-5
Follow Route...................................................................4-5
Following a Route Programmed in the FMS..............4-5
GPS Steering (GPSS) Function...................................4-6
Following a VOR Radial.............................................4-6
Fly Heading.....................................................................4-7
Maintain Altitude............................................................4-7
Climbs And Descents......................................................4-8
Vertical Speed.............................................................4-8
Vertical Speed with Altitude Capture.........................4-8
Catching Errors: Armed Modes Help Prevent
Forgotten Mode Changes.........................................4-8
Common Error: Failure To Arm the Altitude
Mode......................................................................4-10
Awareness: Altitude Alerting Systems..................4-10
Awareness: Automatic Mode Changes..................4-10
Learning: The Importance of Understanding........4-10
Power Management...................................................4-11
Essential Skills..........................................................4-11
Course Intercepts..........................................................4-11
Flying an Assigned Heading To Intercept a Course
or VOR Radial...........................................................4-11
Essential Skills..........................................................4-11
Coupled Approaches.....................................................4-12
ILS Approaches.........................................................4-12
RNAV Approaches With Vertical Guidance ...........4-12
Power Management...................................................4-13
Essential Skills..........................................................4-13
Deciding When To Use The FD/Autopilot...................4-14
Miscellaneous Autopilot Topics...................................4-15
Autopilot Mode Awareness.......................................4-15
Positive Exchange of Controls..................................4-15
Preflighting the Autopilot..........................................4-15
Autopilot and Electric Trim System Failures............4-15
Essential Skills..........................................................4-15
Chapter Summary.........................................................4-16
Chapter 5
Information Systems............................................5-1
Introduction.....................................................................5-1
Multi-Function Display...................................................5-2
Essential Skills............................................................5-2
Moving Maps..................................................................5-2
Using the Moving Map...............................................5-2
Maintaining the “Big Picture”.................................5-3
Maintaining Awareness of Potential Landing
Sites..........................................................................5-3
Maintaining Awareness on the Airport Surface......5-3
Identifying Controlled Airspace..............................5-3
Identifying the Missed Approach Point...................5-4
Catching Errors: Using the Moving Map to Detect
Route Programming Errors.........................................5-4
Catching Errors: Using The Moving Map To Detect
Configuration Errors....................................................5-4
Maintaining Proficiency: Spatial Reasoning Skills.....5-5
Failure Indications...................................................5-5
Common Error: Using the Moving Map as a
Primary Navigation Instrument...................................5-5
Awareness: Overreliance On The Moving Map.........5-6

Terrain Systems..............................................................5-6
Early Systems..............................................................5-6
Terrain Display............................................................5-7
Monitoring Surrounding Terrain During
Departure and Arrival..............................................5-7
Evaluating a Direct-To Routing...............................5-8
Terrain Awareness and Warning Systems..................5-8
TAWS A and TAWS B...........................................5-8
TAWS Alerts...........................................................5-8
Risk: Silencing TAWS Alerts.....................................5-8
Risk: Flying in Close Proximity to Terrain.................5-9
Cockpit Weather Systems...............................................5-9
Thunderstorms and Precipitation................................5-9
Onboard Weather Radar Systems.............................5-10
Ground Weather Surveillance Radar.........................5-10
Limitations of Both Types of Weather Radar
Systems..................................................................5-11
Lightning................................................................5-12
Clouds....................................................................5-12
Other Weather Products.........................................5-12
Using Advanced Weather Data Systems...................5-12
Preflight Overview.................................................5-13
Track Progress of Significant Weather En Route..5-13
Investigate Weather Phenomena Reported by
Radio......................................................................5-13
Broadcast Weather Products Versus Onboard
Weather Sensors....................................................5-13
Common Error: Skipping the Preflight Weather
Briefing......................................................................5-14
Traffic Data Systems.....................................................5-14
Traffic Data Systems Using Onboard Sensing
Equipment.................................................................5-14
Traffic Data Systems Receiving Information From
Ground-based Facilities.............................................5-14
Advanced Traffic Data Systems Based On ADS-B..5-15
Using A Traffic Data System....................................5-15
Setting Sensitivity on a Traffic Data System.........5-15
Responding to Traffic Alerts.................................5-15
Error: Overreliance on Traffic Data
System/Failure To Scan.........................................5-15
Using a Traffic Data System on the Ground..........5-15
Fuel Management Systems...........................................5-15
Initial Fuel Estimate..................................................5-16
Estimating Amount Of Fuel on Board......................5-16
Predicting Fuel at a Later Point in the Flight............5-16
Determining Endurance.............................................5-17
Risk: Stretching Fuel Reserves.................................5-17
Other Cockpit Information System Features................5-17
Electronic Checklists.................................................5-17
Electronic Charts.......................................................5-18
FMS/RNAV Pages on the MFD................................5-18
Chapter Summary.........................................................5-19
Essential Skills Checklist................................... E-1
Glossary...............................................................G-1