Aviation Instructor´s Handbook

A la altura de nuestra Identidad

Ingeniería Aeronáutica

CONTENIDO

Preface ...................................................................iii

 


Table of Contents .................................................vii

 


Chapter 1

 


Human Behavior ..................................................1-1
Introduction ....................................................................1-2
Definitions of Human Behavior .....................................1-2
Personality Types .......................................................1-2
Instructor and Student Relationship ...........................1-3
Human Needs and Motivation .......................................1-3
Human Needs That Must Be Met To Encourage
Learning .....................................................................1-4
Physiological ...........................................................1-4
Security ...................................................................1-4
Belonging ................................................................1-4
Esteem .....................................................................1-4
Cognitive and Aesthetic ..........................................1-4
Self-Actualization ...................................................1-4
Human Nature and Motivation ......................................1-5
Human Factors That Inhibit Learning ............................1-6
Defense Mechanisms ..................................................1-6
Repression ...............................................................1-6
Denial .....................................................................1-7
Compensation .........................................................1-7
Projection ................................................................1-7
Rationalization ........................................................1-7
Reaction Formation ................................................1-7
Fantasy ....................................................................1-7
Displacement ..........................................................1-7
Student Emotional Reactions ........................................1-8
Anxiety .......................................................................1-8
Normal Reactions to Stress ........................................1-9
Abnormal Reactions to Stress ....................................1-9
Flight Instructor Actions Regarding Seriously
Abnormal Students .....................................................1-9
Teaching the Adult Student .........................................1-10
Chapter Summary ........................................................1-10

Chapter 2

 


The Learning Process .........................................2-1
Introduction ....................................................................2-1
The First Flight ..........................................................2-1
The Check Ride ..........................................................2-1
Discussion of First Flight and Check Ride .................2-2
What Is Learning? .....................................................2-2
The Framework for Learning .....................................2-2
Learning Theory ............................................................2-2
Behaviorism ...............................................................2-3
Cognitive Theory ........................................................2-3
Information Processing Theory ..............................2-4
Constructivism .......................................................2-4
Perceptions .....................................................................2-6
Factors That Affect Perception ..................................2-7
Physical Organism ..................................................2-7
Goals and Values ...................................................2-7
Self-Concept ...........................................................2-7
Time and Opportunity .............................................2-7
Element of Threat ..................................................2-7
Insight ............................................................................2-8
Acquiring Knowledge ...................................................2-8
Memorization ............................................................2-8
Understanding ...........................................................2-9
Concept Learning ......................................................2-9
Thorndike and the Laws of Learning ...........................2-10
Readiness ..................................................................2-10
Effect ........................................................................2-11
Exercise ....................................................................2-11
Primacy .....................................................................2-11
Intensity ....................................................................2-11
Recency ....................................................................2-11
Domains of Learning ...................................................2-12
Cognitive Domain ....................................................2-12
Affective Domain .....................................................2-14
Psychomotor Domain ...............................................2-15
Summary of Instructor Actions ...............................2-15

Characteristics of Learning ..........................................2-15
Learning Is Purposeful .............................................2-16
Learning Is a Result of Experience ..........................2-16
Learning Is Multifaceted ..........................................2-17
Learning Is an Active Process ..................................2-17
Learning Styles ............................................................2-17
Right Brain/Left Brain .............................................2-18
Holistic/Serialist Theory .........................................2-18
Index of Learning Styles (ILS) .................................2-18
Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic Learners (VAK) .......2-19
Superlinks .................................................................2-19
Summary ..................................................................2-19
Acquiring Skill Knowledge .........................................2-20
Stages of Skill Acquisition .......................................2-20
Cognitive Stage .....................................................2-20
Associative Stage ..................................................2-20
Automatic Response Stage ..................................2-20
Knowledge of Results ..............................................2-21
How To Develop Skills ...........................................2-21
Types of Practice ..........................................................2-22
Deliberate Practice .................................................2-22
Blocked Practice .......................................................2-22
Random Practice ......................................................2-22
Evaluation Versus Critique ..........................................2-23
Overlearning of Knowledge ....................................2-23
Application of Skill ..................................................2-24
Summary of Instructor Actions ................................2-24
Putting It All Together ................................................2-24
Multitasking ............................................................2-24
Attention Switching .............................................2-24
Simultaneous Performance ..................................2-25
Learning To Multitask .............................................2-25
Distractions and Interruptions ..................................2-25
Fixation and Inattention ..........................................2-26
How To Identify Fixation or Inattention Problems ..2-26
Scenario-Based Training .............................................2-26
The Learning Route to Expertise .............................2-27
Cognitive Strategies .............................................2-27
Problem-Solving Tactics .....................................2-27
Awareness of Existence of Unknowns .....................2-27
Summary of Instructor Actions ...............................2-27
Errors ...........................................................................2-28
Kinds of Error ..........................................................2-28
Slip ........................................................................2-28
Mistake .................................................................2-28
Reducing Error ........................................................2-28
Learning and Practicing .......................................2-28
Taking Time .........................................................2-28
Checking for Errors .............................................2-29

Using Reminders ..................................................2-29
Developing Routines ...........................................2-29
Raising Awareness ...............................................2-29
Error Recovery ........................................................2-29
Learning From Error ...............................................2-29
Summary of Instructor Actions ................................2-29
Motivation ...................................................................2-29
Where Does the Motivation To Learn Come
From? ......................................................................2-31
Student Questionnaire ..............................................2-31
Maintaining Motivation ..............................................2-31
Rewarding Success ..................................................2-31
Presenting New Challenges .....................................2-31
Drops in Motivation ................................................2-32
Summary of Instructor Actions ...............................2-32
Memory ........................................................................2-32
Sensory Memory .....................................................2-32
Short-Term Memory (STM) .....................................2-32
Long-Term Memory (LTM) .....................................2-33
Remembering What Has Been Learned ...................2-34
How Usage Affects Memory ...................................2-34
Forgetting .................................................................2-34
Retrieval Failure ...................................................2-34
Fading ...................................................................2-34
Interference ...........................................................2-35
Repression or Suppression ....................................2-35
Retention of Learning ..................................................2-35
Praise Stimulates Remembering ...............................2-35
Recall Is Promoted by Association ..........................2-35
Favorable Attitudes Aid Retention ...........................2-35
Learning With All Senses Is Most Effective ...........2-35
Meaningful Repetition Aids Recall ..........................2-35
Mnemonics ...............................................................2-35
Transfer of Learning ....................................................2-36
Habit Formation .......................................................2-37
How Understanding Affects Memory .....................2-37
Remembering During Training ...............................2-37
Remembering After Training ..................................2-37
Sources of Knowledge ............................................2-38
Summary of Instructor Actions ...............................2-38
Chapter Summary ........................................................2-38

 

 

Chapter 3
Effective Communication ...................................3-1
Introduction ....................................................................3-1
Basic Elements of Communication ................................3-2
Source .........................................................................3-2
Symbols .....................................................................3-2
Receiver ......................................................................3-4

Barriers to Effective Communication ............................3-4
Lack of Common Experience .....................................3-4
Confusion Between the Symbol and the Symbolized Object .........................................................................3-5
Overuse of Abstractions .............................................3-5
Interference ................................................................3-6
Developing Communication Skills ................................3-7
Role Playing ..............................................................3-7
Instructional Communication .....................................3-7
Listening ....................................................................3-8
Questioning ...............................................................3-9
Instructional Enhancement .......................................3-10
Chapter Summary ........................................................3-10

 

Chapter 4

 


The Teaching Process ........................................4-1
Introduction ....................................................................4-1
What Is Teaching? ........................................................4-2
Essential Teaching Skills ..........................................4-2
People Skills ...........................................................4-2
Subject Matter Expertise .........................................4-2
Management Skills ................................................4-3
Assessment Skills ..................................................4-3
Instructor’s Code of Conduct .........................................4-3
Course of Training .........................................................4-4
Preparation of a Lesson ..................................................4-4
Training Objectives and Standards ...........................4-4
Performance-Based Objectives .................................4-5
Description of the Skill or Behavior .......................4-6
Conditions ...............................................................4-6
Criteria ....................................................................4-6
The Importance of the PTS in Aviation Training Curricula ....................................................................4-6
Decision-Based Objectives .......................................4-7
Other Uses of Training Objectives .............................4-7
Presentation of a Lesson ................................................4-8
Organization of Material ................................................4-8
Introduction ................................................................4-8
Attention .................................................................4-8
Motivation ...............................................................4-9
Overview .................................................................4-9
Development ..............................................................4-9
Past to Present .........................................................4-9
Simple to Complex .................................................4-9
Known to Unknown ................................................4-9
Most Frequently Used to Least Used ......................4-9
Conclusion ................................................................4-10
Training Delivery Methods ..........................................4-10
Lecture Method ........................................................4-10
Teaching Lecture ..................................................4-10
Preparing the Teaching Lecture ............................4-10

Suitable Language ................................................4-11
Types of Delivery .................................................4-11
Use of Notes .........................................................4-12
Formal Versus Informal Lectures .........................4-12
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lecture .....4-12
Discussion Method ...................................................4-13
Guided Discussion Method ......................................4-13
Use of Questions in a Guided Discussion .............4-13
Planning a Guided Discussion ..............................4-14
Student Preparation for a Guided Discussion .......4-14
Guiding a Discussion—Instructor Technique ......4-14
Advantages ...........................................................4-15
Problem-Based Learning ............................................4-15
Teaching Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) .....4-16
Types of Problem-Based Instruction ........................4-16
Scenario-Based Training Method (SBT) ..............4-16
Collaborative Problem-Solving Method ...............4-17
Case Study Method ...............................................4-17
Electronic Learning (E-Learning) ................................4-18
Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) Method ..........4-19
Simulation, Role-Playing, and Video Gaming .........4-20
Cooperative or Group Learning Method ......................4-20
Conditions and Controls ...........................................4-20
Demonstration-Performance Method ...........................4-21
Explanation Phase ....................................................4-21
Demonstration Phase ................................................4-21
Student Performance and Instructor Supervision
Phases .......................................................................4-21
Evaluation Phase ......................................................4-21
Drill and Practice Method ............................................4-21
Conclusion ................................................................4-22
Application of the Lesson ............................................4-22
Assessment of the Lesson ............................................4-22
Instructional Aids and Training Technologies .............4-22
Instructional Aid Theory ..........................................4-22
Reasons for Use of Instructional Aids ......................4-23
Guidelines for Use of Instructional Aids ..................4-24
Types of Instructional Aids ......................................4-25
Chalk or Marker Board .........................................4-25
Supplemental Print Material .................................4-25
Enhanced Training Materials ................................4-26
Projected Material .................................................4-26
Video .....................................................................4-27
Interactive CDs and DVDs ...................................4-27
Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) ...................4-28
Models, Mock-ups, and Cut-Aways .....................4-28
Test Preparation Material .............................................4-29
Future Developments ...................................................4-29
Chapter Summary ........................................................4-29

Chapter 5


Assessment .........................................................5-1
Introduction ....................................................................5-1
Assessment Terminology ...............................................5-2
Purpose of Assessment ..................................................5-2
General Characteristics of Effective Assessment ..........5-3
Objective ....................................................................5-3
Flexible .......................................................................5-3
Acceptable ..................................................................5-3
Comprehensive ...........................................................5-3
Constructive ...............................................................5-3
Organized ...................................................................5-4
Thoughtful ..................................................................5-4
Specific .......................................................................5-4
Traditional Assessment ..................................................5-4
Characteristics of a Good Written Assessment
(Test) ..........................................................................5-4
Authentic Assessment ....................................................5-5
Collaborative Assessment ..........................................5-5
Maneuver or Procedure “Grades” .............................5-6
Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM)
“Grades” ....................................................................5-6
Choosing an Effective Assessment Method ..................5-8
Determine Level-of-Learning Objectives ..................5-8
List Indicators/Samples of Desired Behaviors ...........5-8
Establish Criterion Objectives ....................................5-8
Develop Criterion-Referenced Assessment Items ......5-9
Critiques and Oral Assessments .....................................5-9
Instructor/Student Critique .......................................5-10
Student-Led Critique ................................................5-10
Small Group Critique ...............................................5-10
Individual Student Critique by Another Student ......5-10
Self-Critique .............................................................5-10
Written Critique ........................................................5-10
Oral Assessment .......................................................5-10
Characteristics of Effective Questions .....................5-10
Types of Questions To Avoid ..................................5-11
Answering Student Questions ..................................5-11
Chapter Summary ........................................................5-11

 

 

Chapter 6


Planning Instructional Activity ..........................6-1
Introduction ...................................................................6-1
Course of Training .........................................................6-2
Blocks of Learning .........................................................6-2
Training Syllabus ...........................................................6-3
Syllabus Format and Content .....................................6-3
How To Use a Training Syllabus ...............................6-4
Lesson Plans...................................................................6-6
Purpose of the Lesson Plan ........................................6-6

Characteristics of a Well-Planned Lesson ..................6-6
How To Use a Lesson Plan Properly .........................6-8
Lesson Plan Formats ..................................................6-8
Scenario-Based Training (SBT) .....................................6-9
Duties, Responsibilities, and Authority of the
Aviation Instructor .....................................................6-9
SBT Lesson Plan ......................................................6-10
Prescenario Planning ................................................6-11
Single-Pilot Resource Management .............................6-12
Chapter Summary ........................................................6-12

 

 

Chapter 7


Instructor Responsibilities
and Professionalism ...........................................7-1
Introduction ....................................................................7-1
Aviation Instructor Responsibilities ..............................7-2
Helping Students Learn ..............................................7-2
Providing Adequate Instruction .................................7-2
Standards of Performance ..........................................7-3
Emphasizing the Positive ...........................................7-3
Minimizing Student Frustrations ................................7-4
Flight Instructor Responsibilities ..................................7-5
Physiological Obstacles for Flight Students ...............7-5
Ensuring Student Skill Set ..........................................7-5
Aviator’s Model Code of Conduct .................................7-6
Safety Practices and Accident Prevention .....................7-6
Professionalism ..............................................................7-6
Sincerity .....................................................................7-7
Acceptance of the Student ..........................................7-7
Personal Appearance and Habits ................................7-7
Demeanor ...................................................................7-8
Proper Language ........................................................7-8
Evaluation of Student Ability ........................................7-8
Demonstrated Ability ................................................7-8
Keeping the Student Informed ...................................7-8
Correction of Student Errors ......................................7-8
Aviation Instructors and Exams .....................................7-8
Knowledge Test ..........................................................7-8
Practical Test ..............................................................7-9
Professional Development .............................................7-9
Continuing Education .................................................7-9
Government ............................................................7-9
Educational/Training Institutions .........................7-10
Commercial Organizations ...................................7-10
Industry Organizations ..........................................7-10
Sources of Material ..................................................7-10
Printed Material ....................................................7-11
Electronic Sources ................................................7-11
Chapter Summary ........................................................7-11

 

 

Chapter 8


Techniques of Flight Instruction ........................8-1
Introduction ....................................................................8-1
Flight Instructor Qualifications ......................................8-2
Practical Flight Instructor Strategies ..............................8-2
Obstacles to Learning During Flight Instruction ...........8-3
Unfair Treatment ........................................................8-3
Impatience ..................................................................8-3
Worry or Lack of Interest ...........................................8-3
Physical Discomfort, Illness, Fatigue,
and Dehydration .........................................................8-4
Fatigue ....................................................................8-4
Dehydration and Heatstroke ...................................8-5
Apathy Due to Inadequate Instruction .......................8-5
Anxiety .......................................................................8-5
Demonstration-Performance Training Delivery
Method ...........................................................................8-6
Explanation Phase ......................................................8-6
Demonstration Phase ..................................................8-6
Student Performance and Instructor
Supervision Phases .....................................................8-6
Evaluation Phase ........................................................8-6
The Telling-and-Doing Technique .............................8-7
Instructor Tells—Instructor Does ..............................8-7
Student Tells—Instructor Does ..............................8-8
Student Tells—Student Does ..................................8-8
Positive Exchange of Flight Controls ............................8-8
Background ................................................................8-9
Procedure ....................................................................8-9
Sterile Cockpit Rule .......................................................8-9
Use of Distractions .........................................................8-9
Integrated Flight Instruction ........................................8-10
Development of Habit Patterns ................................8-10
Operating Efficiency ................................................8-10
Procedures ................................................................8-11
See and Avoid ..........................................................8-11
Assessment of Piloting Ability ....................................8-11
Demonstrated Ability ..............................................8-12
Postflight Evaluation ...............................................8-12
First Solo Flight ...................................................8-12
Post-Solo Debriefing .............................................8-12
Correction of Student Errors ....................................8-12
Pilot Supervision ......................................................8-12
Dealing with Normal Challenges .............................8-13
Visualization .............................................................8-13
Practice Landings .....................................................8-13
Practical Test Recommendations .............................8-13
Aeronautical Decision-Making ...................................8-14
The Decision-Making Process .................................8-15
Defining the Problem ............................................8-15

Choosing a Course of Action ................................8-15
Implementing the Decision and Evaluating
the Outcome ..........................................................8-17
Factors Affecting Decision-Making .........................8-17
Recognizing Hazardous Attitudes ........................8-17
Stress Management ...............................................8-18
Use of Resources ......................................................8-19
Internal Resources ................................................8-19
External Resources ...............................................8-19
Workload Management ........................................8-20
Chapter Summary ........................................................8-21

 

 

Chapter 9


Risk Management ................................................9-1
Introduction ....................................................................9-1
Defining Risk Management ...........................................9-2
Principles of Risk Management .................................9-3
Accept No Unnecessary Risk .................................9-3
Make Risk Decisions at the Appropriate Level ......9-3
Accept Risk When Benefits Outweigh
the Costs ..................................................................9-3
Integrate Risk Management Into Planning
at All Levels ............................................................9-3
Risk Management Process .........................................9-3
Step 1: Identify the Hazard .....................................9-3
Step 2: Assess the Risk ...........................................9-3
Step 3: Analyze Risk Control Measures .................9-3
Step 4: Make Control Decisions .............................9-3
Step 5: Implement Risk Controls ............................9-4
Step 6: Supervise and Review ................................9-4
Implementing the Risk Management Process ............9-4
Level of Risk ..................................................................9-4
Assessing Risk ...............................................................9-4
Likelihood of an Event ...........................................9-4
Severity of an Event ................................................9-5
Mitigating Risk ..............................................................9-5
IMSAFE Checklist .....................................................9-5
The PAVE Checklist .................................................9-6
Three-P Model for Pilots ...............................................9-8
Hazard List for Aviation Technicians ............................9-9
Pilot Self-Assessment ....................................................9-9
Situational Awareness ....................................................9-9
Obstacles to Maintaining Situational Awareness .....9-10
Operational Pitfalls ...................................................9-11
Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM) .................9-11
SRM and the 5P Check ...........................................9-13
The Plan ...............................................................9-14
The Plane .............................................................9-14
The Pilot ...............................................................

The Passengers .....................................................9-14
The Programming ................................................9-15
Information Management .........................................9-15
Task Management (TM) ...........................................9-15
Automation Management .........................................9-15
Teaching Decision-Making Skills ................................9-16
Assessing SRM Skills ..................................................9-17
Chapter Summary ........................................................9-18

 

 

Appendix A
References ..........................................................A-1
Appendix B
Developing a Test Item Bank ............................B-1
Appendix C
Certificates, Ratings, and Endorsements ........C-1
Appendix D
Personal Minimums Checklist ..........................D-1
Appendix E
Flight Instructor Endorsements ........................E-1
Appendix F
Relationships of Decision-Making Models .......F-1
Glossary ..............................................................G-1
Index ......................................................................I-1