Airplane Flying Hanbook

A la altura de nuestra Identidad

Ingeniería Aeronáutica

CONTENIDO

Preface....................................................................iii
Acknowledgments..................................................v
Table of Contents .................................................vii

 

Chapter 1
Introduction to Flight Training ...........................1-1
Introduction....................................................................1-1
Role of the FAA.............................................................1-2
Flight Standards Service ................................................1-5
Role of the Pilot Examiner.............................................1-6
Role of the Flight Instructor...........................................1-7
Sources of Flight Training .............................................1-8
Practical Test Standards (PTS) and Airman
Certification Standards (ACS)..................................1-10
Safety of Flight Practices .........................................1-11
Collision Avoidance .............................................1-11
Runway Incursion Avoidance...............................1-12
Stall Awareness ....................................................1-12
Use of Checklists ..................................................1-13
Positive Transfer of Controls................................1-15
Chapter Summary ........................................................1-15

 

Chapter 2
Ground Operations..............................................2-1
Introduction....................................................................2-1
Preflight Assessment of the Aircraft..............................2-2
Visual Preflight Assessment.......................................2-3
Outer Wing Surfaces and Tail Section.......................2-5
Fuel and Oil................................................................2-6
Landing Gear, Tires, and Brakes................................2-8
Engine and Propeller ..................................................2-9
Risk and Resource Management....................................2-9
Risk Management.....................................................2-10
Identifying the Hazard ..........................................2-10
Risk .......................................................................2-10
Risk Assessment ...................................................2-10
Risk Identification ................................................2-10

Risk Mitigation .....................................................2-10
Resource Management..........................................2-11
Ground Operations.......................................................2-11
Engine Starting.............................................................2-12
Hand Propping .............................................................2-13
Taxiing .........................................................................2-14
Before-Takeoff Check .................................................2-17
Takeoff Checks ............................................................2-18
After-Landing ..............................................................2-18
Clear of Runway and Stopped .....................................2-18
Parking .........................................................................2-19
Engine Shutdown.........................................................2-19
Post-Flight....................................................................2-19
Securing and Servicing.............................................2-19
Chapter Summary ........................................................2-19

 

Chapter 3
Basic Flight Maneuvers ......................................3-1
Introduction....................................................................3-1
The Four Fundamentals .................................................3-2
Effect and Use of the Flight Controls ............................3-2
Feel of the Airplane....................................................3-4
Attitude Flying ...............................................................3-4
Integrated Flight Instruction ..........................................3-5
Straight-and-Level Flight...............................................3-6
Straight Flight.............................................................3-7
Level Flight ................................................................3-8
Trim Control ................................................................3-10
Level Turns ..................................................................3-10
Turn Radius ..............................................................3-12
Establishing a Turn...................................................3-13
Climbs and Climbing Turns.........................................3-16
Establishing a Climb ................................................3-17
Climbing Turns ........................................................3-18
Descents and Descending Turns ..................................3-19
Glides ...........................................................................3-20
Gliding Turns ...........................................................3-21
Chapter Summary ........................................................3-23

 

Chapter 4
Maintaining Aircraft Control: Upset
Prevention and Recovery Training ....................4-1
Introduction....................................................................4-1
Defining an Airplane Upset........................................4-2
Coordinated Flight......................................................4-2
Angle of Attack ..........................................................4-2
Slow Flight.....................................................................4-3
Performing the Slow Flight Maneuver.......................4-4
Stalls...............................................................................4-5
Stall Recognition ........................................................4-5
Angle of Attack Indicators .....................................4-6
Stall Characteristics....................................................4-6
Fundamentals of Stall Recovery.................................4-7
Stall Training..............................................................4-8
Approaches to Stalls (Impending Stalls),
Power‑On or Power-Off .............................................4-8
Full Stalls, Power-Off ................................................4-8
Full Stalls, Power-On .................................................4-9
Secondary Stall.........................................................4-10
Accelerated Stalls .....................................................4-10
Cross-Control Stall...................................................4-11
Elevator Trim Stall ...................................................4-12
Common Errors ........................................................4-13
Spin Awareness ........................................................4-13
Spin Procedures........................................................4-14
Entry Phase ...........................................................4-14
Incipient Phase......................................................4-14
Developed Phase...................................................4-15
Recovery Phase.....................................................4-15
Intentional Spins.......................................................4-16
Weight and Balance Requirements Related
to Spins.....................................................................4-17
Common Errors ........................................................4-17
Upset Prevention and Recovery ..................................4-17
Unusual Attitudes Versus Upsets.............................4-17
Environmental Factors .............................................4-18
Mechanical Factors...................................................4-18
Human Factors .........................................................4-18
VMC to IMC.........................................................4-18
IMC.......................................................................4-18
Diversion of Attention ..........................................4-18
Task Saturation .....................................................4-18
Sensory Overload/Deprivation .............................4-18
Spatial Disorientation ...........................................4-19
Startle Response....................................................4-19
Surprise Response.................................................4-19
Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT)...4-19
UPRT Core Concepts ...............................................4-20

Academic Material (Knowledge and
Risk Management) ...................................................4-20
Prevention Through ADM and
Risk Management .................................................4-21
Prevention through Proportional
Counter-Response.................................................4-21
Recovery...............................................................4-22
Common Errors ........................................................4-22
Roles of FSTDs and Airplanes in UPRT .................4-22
Airplane-Based UPRT..............................................4-22
All-Attitude/All-Envelope Flight
Training Methods .....................................................4-23
FSTD–based UPRT..................................................4-23
Spiral Dive................................................................4-23
UPRT Summary .......................................................4-24
Chapter Summary ........................................................4-24

 

Chapter 5
Takeoffs and Departure Climbs .........................5-1
Introduction....................................................................5-1
Terms and Definitions................................................5-2
Prior to Takeoff..............................................................5-2
Normal Takeoff..............................................................5-3
Takeoff Roll ...............................................................5-3
Lift-Off .......................................................................5-4
Initial Climb ...............................................................5-5
Crosswind Takeoff.........................................................5-6
Takeoff Roll ...............................................................5-6
Lift-Off .......................................................................5-8
Initial Climb ...............................................................5-8
Ground Effect on Takeoff..............................................5-9
Short-Field Takeoff and Maximum
Performance Climb ......................................................5-10
Takeoff Roll .............................................................5-10
Lift-Off .....................................................................5-10
Initial Climb .............................................................5-11
Soft/Rough-Field Takeoff and Climb ..........................5-11
Takeoff Roll .............................................................5-12
Lift-Off .....................................................................5-12
Initial Climb .............................................................5-12
Rejected Takeoff/Engine Failure .................................5-12
Noise Abatement..........................................................5-13
Chapter Summary ........................................................5-13

 

Chapter 6
Ground Reference Maneuvers ...........................6-1
Introduction....................................................................6-1
Maneuvering by Reference to Ground Objects .............6-2
Drift and Ground Track Control ....................................6-3
Correcting Drift During Straight-and-Level Flight....6-3

Constant Radius During Turning Flight.....................6-4
Tracking Over and Parallel to a Straight Line............6-6
Rectangular Course........................................................6-6
Turns Around a Point.....................................................6-8
S-Turns.........................................................................6-10
Elementary Eights........................................................6-11
Eights Along a Road ................................................6-11
Eights Across A Road ..............................................6-13
Eights Around Pylons...............................................6-13
Eights-on-Pylons ......................................................6-14
Chapter Summary ........................................................6-18

 

Chapter 7
Airport Traffic Patterns .......................................7-1
Introduction....................................................................7-1
Airport Traffic Patterns and Operations ........................7-2
Standard Airport Traffic Patterns...................................7-2
Non-Towered Airports...................................................7-5
Safety Considerations ....................................................7-5
Chapter Summary ..........................................................7-6

 

Chapter 8
Approaches and Landings .................................8-1
Introduction....................................................................8-1
Normal Approach and Landing .....................................8-2
Base Leg.....................................................................8-2
Final Approach...........................................................8-3
Use of Flaps................................................................8-4
Estimating Height and Movement..............................8-5
Round Out (Flare) ......................................................8-6
Touchdown.................................................................8-7
After-Landing Roll.....................................................8-8
Stabilized Approach Concept.....................................8-9
Intentional Slips ...........................................................8-11
Go-Arounds (Rejected Landings) ................................8-12
Power........................................................................8-13
Attitude.....................................................................8-13
Configuration ...........................................................8-13
Ground Effect...............................................................8-14
Crosswind Approach and Landing...............................8-14
Crosswind Final Approach.......................................8-14
Crosswind Round Out (Flare) ..................................8-15
Crosswind Touchdown.............................................8-15
Crosswind After-Landing Roll.................................8-16
Maximum Safe Crosswind Velocities......................8-17
Turbulent Air Approach and Landing..........................8-18
Short-Field Approach and Landing .............................8-18
Soft-Field Approach and Landing ...............................8-21
Power-Off Accuracy Approaches ................................8-22
90° Power-Off Approach .........................................8-22
180° Power-Off Approach .......................................8-23

360° Power-Off Approach .......................................8-25
Emergency Approaches and Landings (Simulated).....8-26
Faulty Approaches and Landings ................................8-27
Low Final Approach.................................................8-27
High Final Approach................................................8-28
Slow Final Approach................................................8-28
Use of Power ............................................................8-29
High Round Out .......................................................8-29
Late or Rapid Round Out .........................................8-30
Floating During Round Out......................................8-30
Ballooning During Round Out .................................8-30
Bouncing During Touchdown..................................8-31
Porpoising.................................................................8-32
Wheel Barrowing .....................................................8-33
Hard Landing............................................................8-33
Touchdown in a Drift or Crab ..................................8-34
Ground Loop ............................................................8-34
Wing Rising After Touchdown ................................8-35
Hydroplaning ...............................................................8-35
Dynamic Hydroplaning ............................................8-35
Reverted Rubber Hydroplaning................................8-35
Viscous Hydroplaning..............................................8-36
Chapter Summary ........................................................8-36

 

Chapter 9
Performance Maneuvers.....................................9-1
Introduction....................................................................9-1
Steep Turns ....................................................................9-2
Steep Spiral ....................................................................9-4
Chandelle .......................................................................9-5
Lazy Eight......................................................................9-6
Chapter Summary ..........................................................9-8

 

Chapter 10
Night Operations ...............................................10-1
Introduction..................................................................10-1
Night Vision.................................................................10-2
Night Illusions..............................................................10-3
Pilot Equipment ...........................................................10-4
Airplane Equipment and Lighting ...............................10-4
Airport and Navigation Lighting Aids.........................10-5
Training for Night Flight .............................................10-6
Preparation and Preflight .............................................10-6
Starting, Taxiing, and Runup .......................................10-6
Takeoff and Climb .......................................................10-7
Orientation and Navigation..........................................10-7
Approaches and Landings............................................10-8
Night Emergencies ...................................................10-9
Chapter Summary ........................................................10-9

 

 

Chapter 11
Transition to Complex Airplanes .....................11-1
Introduction..................................................................11-1
Function of Flaps......................................................11-2
Flap Effectiveness ....................................................11-3
Operational Procedures ............................................11-3
Controllable-Pitch Propeller ........................................11-4
Constant-Speed Propeller.........................................11-4
Takeoff, Climb, and Cruise ......................................11-6
Blade Angle Control.................................................11-7
Governing Range......................................................11-7
Constant-Speed Propeller Operation........................11-7
Turbocharging..............................................................11-8
Ground Boosting Versus Altitude Turbocharging ...11-9
Operating Characteristics .........................................11-9
Heat Management...................................................11-10
Turbocharger Failure..............................................11-10
Over-Boost Condition.........................................11-10
Low Manifold Pressure.......................................11-11
Retractable Landing Gear ..........................................11-11
Landing Gear Systems............................................11-11
Controls and Position Indicators ............................11-11
Landing Gear Safety Devices.................................11-11
Emergency Gear Extension Systems......................11-12
Operational Procedures ..........................................11-12
Preflight ..............................................................11-12
Takeoff and Climb..............................................11-13
Approach and Landing .......................................11-15
Transition Training ....................................................11-16
Chapter Summary ......................................................11-16

 

Chapter 12
Transition to Multiengine Airplanes ................12-1
Introduction..................................................................12-1
General.........................................................................12-2
Terms and Definitions..................................................12-2
Operation of Systems...................................................12-3
Propellers..................................................................12-3
Propeller Synchronization ........................................12-6
Fuel Crossfeed..........................................................12-6
Combustion Heater...................................................12-6
Flight Director/Autopilot..........................................12-6
Yaw Damper.............................................................12-7
Alternator/Generator ................................................12-7
Nose Baggage Compartment....................................12-7
Anti-Icing/Deicing....................................................12-8
Performance and Limitations.......................................12-9
Weight and Balance ...................................................12-11
Ground Operation ......................................................12-12
Normal and Crosswind Takeoff and Climb ...............12-13
Level Off and Cruise..................................................12-14

Normal Approach and Landing .................................12-14
Crosswind Approach and Landing.............................12-16
Short-Field Takeoff and Climb..................................12-17
Short-Field Approach and Landing ...........................12-17
Go-Around .................................................................12-18
Rejected Takeoff........................................................12-19
Engine Failure After Lift-Off.....................................12-19
Landing Gear Down ...............................................12-19
Landing Gear Control Selected Up, Single-
Engine Climb Performance Inadequate .................12-20
Landing Gear Control Selected Up, Single-
Engine Climb Performance Adequate....................12-20
Control ................................................................12-20
Configuration......................................................12-21
Climb ..................................................................12-21
Checklist .............................................................12-21
Engine Failure During Flight .....................................12-22
Engine Inoperative Approach and Landing ...............12-23
Engine Inoperative Flight Principles .........................12-23
Slow Flight.................................................................12-26
Stalls...........................................................................12-26
Power-Off Approach to Stall (Approach
and Landing)...........................................................12-26
Power-On Approach to Stall (Takeoff
and Departure)........................................................12-27
Full Stall .................................................................12-27
Accelerated Approach to Stall................................12-27
Spin Awareness ......................................................12-28
Chapter 13
Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes ....................13-1
Introduction..................................................................13-1
Landing Gear ...............................................................13-2
Instability..................................................................13-2
Angle of Attack............................................................13-2
Taxiing .........................................................................13-2
Weathervaning .............................................................13-3
Visibility ......................................................................13-3
Directional Control ......................................................13-3
Normal Takeoff Roll....................................................13-3
Liftoff...........................................................................13-4
Crosswind Takeoff.......................................................13-4
Short-Field Takeoff......................................................13-4
Soft-Field Takeoff........................................................13-4
Landing ........................................................................13-5
Touchdown ..................................................................13-5
Three-Point Landing.................................................13-5
Wheel Landing .........................................................13-6
Crosswinds ...............................................................13-6
After-Landing Roll.......................................................13-6
Crosswind After-Landing Roll ....................................13-7

Short-Field Landing .....................................................13-7
Soft-Field Landing .......................................................13-8
Ground Loop................................................................13-8
Chapter Summary ........................................................13-8

 

Chapter 14
Transition to Turbopropeller-
Powered Airplanes ............................................14-1
Introduction..................................................................14-1
Gas Turbine Engine .....................................................14-2
Turboprop Engines.......................................................14-2
Turboprop Engine Types .............................................14-3
Fixed Shaft ...............................................................14-3
Split Shaft/ Free Turbine Engine .............................14-5
Reverse Thrust and Beta Range Operations ................14-7
Turboprop Airplane Electrical Systems.......................14-8
Operational Considerations..........................................14-9
Training Considerations.............................................14-11
Ground Training.....................................................14-12
Flight Training........................................................14-12
Chapter Summary ......................................................14-13

 

Chapter 15
Transition to Jet-Powered Airplanes...............15-1
Introduction..................................................................15-1
Jet Engine Basics .........................................................15-2
Operating the Jet Engine..............................................15-3
Jet Engine Ignition....................................................15-4
Continuous Ignition..................................................15-4
Fuel Heaters..............................................................15-4
Setting Power ...........................................................15-4
Thrust To Thrust Lever Relationship .......................15-5
Variation of Thrust with RPM .................................15-5
Slow Acceleration of the Jet Engine ........................15-6
Jet Engine Efficiency ...................................................15-6
Absence of Propeller Effect .........................................15-6
Absence of Propeller Slipstream..................................15-6
Absence of Propeller Drag...........................................15-7
Speed Margins .............................................................15-7
Recovery From Overspeed Conditions........................15-9
Mach Buffet Boundaries ..............................................15-9
Low Speed Flight.......................................................15-10
Stalls...........................................................................15-11
Drag Devices..............................................................15-14
Thrust Reversers ........................................................15-15
Pilot Sensations in Jet Flying.....................................15-17
Jet Airplane Takeoff and Climb.................................15-18
Minimum Equipment List and Configuration
Deviation List ........................................................15-18
V-Speeds ................................................................15-20
Pre-Takeoff Procedures..........................................15-20

Takeoff Roll ...........................................................15-21
Rejected Takeoff ....................................................15-22
Rotation and Lift-Off..............................................15-24
Initial Climb ...........................................................15-24
Jet Airplane Approach and Landing ..........................15-25
Landing Requirements ...........................................15-25
Landing Speeds ......................................................15-25
Significant Differences...........................................15-26
Stabilized Approach ...............................................15-27
Approach Speed .....................................................15-27
Glidepath Control...................................................15-28
The Flare.................................................................15-28
Touchdown and Rollout .........................................15-29
Key Points..................................................................15-30
Chapter Summary ......................................................15-31
Chapter 16
Transition to Light Sport Airplanes (LSA).......16-1
Introduction..................................................................16-1
Light Sport Airplane (LSA) Background ....................16-2
LSA Synopsis...............................................................16-3
Sport Pilot Certificate ..................................................16-3
Transition Training Considerations .............................16-4
Flight School ............................................................16-4
Flight Instructors ......................................................16-4
LSA Maintenance ........................................................16-5
Airframe and Systems..................................................16-5
Construction .............................................................16-5
Engines .....................................................................16-6
Instrumentation.........................................................16-6
Weather Considerations ...............................................16-6
Flight Environment ......................................................16-7
Preflight ....................................................................16-7
Inside of the Airplane ...............................................16-8
Outside of the Airplane ............................................16-9
Before Start and Starting Engine............................16-10
Taxi.........................................................................16-10
Takeoff and Climb..................................................16-11
Cruise .....................................................................16-11
Approach and Landing ..........................................16-12
Emergencies ...........................................................16-12
Postflight ................................................................16-12
Key Points..................................................................16-12
Chapter Summary ......................................................16-13

 

Chapter 17
Emergency Procedures ....................................17-1
Emergency Situations ..................................................17-1
Emergency Landings ...................................................17-2
Types of Emergency Landings.................................17-2
Psychological Hazards .............................................17-2

Basic Safety Concepts..................................................17-2
General .....................................................................17-2
Attitude and Sink Rate Control ................................17-4
Terrain Selection ......................................................17-4
Airplane Configuration.............................................17-4
Approach ..................................................................17-5
Terrain Types ...............................................................17-5
Confined Areas.........................................................17-5
Trees (Forest) ...........................................................17-5
Water (Ditching) and Snow......................................17-6
Engine Failure After Takeoff (Single-Engine) ............17-6
Emergency Descents....................................................17-6
In-Flight Fire................................................................17-7
Engine Fire ...............................................................17-8
Electrical Fires..........................................................17-8
Cabin Fire.................................................................17-8
Flight Control Malfunction/Failure..............................17-9
Total Flap Failure .....................................................17-9
Asymmetric (Split) Flap...........................................17-9
Loss of Elevator Control ..........................................17-9
Landing Gear Malfunction .....................................17-10
Systems Malfunctions................................................17-11
Electrical System....................................................17-11
Pitot-Static System .................................................17-12
Abnormal Engine Instrument Indication ...................17-13
Door Opening In-Flight .............................................17-13
Inadvertent VFR Flight Into IMC .............................17-15
Recognition ............................................................17-15
Maintaining Airplane Control ................................17-15
Attitude Control......................................................17-16
Turns.......................................................................17-16
Climbs ....................................................................17-17
Descents..................................................................17-17
Combined Maneuvers.............................................17-17
Transition to Visual Flight .....................................17-18
Chapter Summary ......................................................17-18
Glossary ..............................................................G-1
Index ......................................................................I-1